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Art & 轉型正義 (II)

Author: Ong Keng Sen/王景生, 2014年02月28日 00時46分

 

And Asia Will be Stunned …”是第11屆台新藝術獎的國際決審王景生去年應日本協會之邀,在一場以「亞洲和諧:文化交流新視野」為題的研討會中所發表演講講稿。王景生的講題 “And Asia Will be Stunned …” 是轉借自2011年威尼斯雙年展代表波蘭國家館展出的,以色列藝術家 Yael Bartana的展覽計畫:“…and Europe will be stunned”。

近年來在國際上相當活躍的 Yael Bartana,多半以影片、影像裝置以及攝影作為創作元素,對所謂「故國」(homeland)、「還鄉」(Return)、「歸屬」(Belonging)等常被不同政治意識形態挪用並加以詮釋的議題深入觀察,特別是針對她自己的國家以色列向來強力主張的「國家意識」,提出深入、且具爭議性的探查。Bartana的展覽在2011年威尼斯雙年展中,出盡鋒頭,備受關注。一方面,這是波蘭館自創立以來,首度由非波蘭國籍的藝術家代表展出;再者,更重要的是,Bartana在此次展覽中,觸及了相當尖銳的議題 – 「波蘭的猶太復興運動」(JRMiP),這個政治團體的主要訴求就是,要讓二次大戰中被迫離開波蘭的猶太人重新回還他們的]「祖國」波蘭。

王文中最終論及的,藉由認同包容與尊重差異的價值,來想像一個後國家狀態、尊重並理解多元文化差異的亞洲,來作為他身為文化人對建立在單一化的全球濟體系下的「亞洲和諧」的抵抗。值此二二八紀念日前夕,能邀得王文與大家分享,顯得特別有意義。

藝術總監 / 李玉玲

 

 “And Asia Will be Stunned …” is the title of a speech delivered last year by the 11th Taishin Arts Award international juror, Ong Keng Sen, at an event organized by the Japan Foundation entitled: “Asia in Harmony: New Horizons for Cultural Exchange.” This was itself named after the project “…and Europe will be stunned” by Israeli artist Yael Bartana shown at the Polish Pavilion during the 2011 Venice Biennial. 

In recent years, Yael Bartana has been particularly active on the international stage, most of her works using film, video installation or photography as creative elements. She has been a keen observer of the way different political ideologies manipulate and interpret such issues as “Homeland,” “Return” and “Belonging,” especially as they relate to her own country of Israel and its forceful assertion of “national consciousness.” Indeed, her exploration of these themes has proven highly contentious in certain circles. Bartana’s work at the 2011 Venice Biennial attracted a great deal of attention because she was the first non-Polish citizen to be asked to show work at the Polish Pavilion. More importantly, she used the occasion to address the sensitive subject of the Jewish Renaissance Movement in Poland (JRMiP), the main demand of which is that Jews forced to leave the nation during World War II should be allowed to return to their Polish “homeland.” 

In his article, Ong embraced the need to recognize, accept and respect the value of differences as a way of imagining a post nation-state existence. In this context, Asia, with its respect for and understanding of cultural diversity, serves as the foundation on which he establishes “Asia in harmony” in juxtaposition to the increasingly unitary globalized world in which we live. It is particularly fitting that we’re able to share Ong Keng Sen’s article on the eve of the 228 Memorial Day. 

Yulin Lee

Artistic Director, Taishin Bank Foundation for Arts & Culture

 


而亞洲將為之震驚... 

文/王景生

「只有一種語言我們無法說話只有一種宗教我們無法傾聽沒有了你我們甚至無法記得...

            今年春天,我終於有機會在紐約某個藝廊親眼一睹雅爾芭塔娜(Yael Bartana)的「而歐洲將為之震驚」(and Europe will be stunned)展覽,之前我已聽聞芭塔娜女士在2011年威尼斯雙年展的波蘭館計畫中,其中有部分片段論及要求330萬位猶太人返回波蘭。這項展覽主要由三部影片構成,第一部影片中,一位波蘭知識分子在廢棄的華沙國家體育場發表演說,懇求之前於集中營逃過一劫的波蘭猶太人踏上返鄉的歸途,因為少了他們,波蘭就永遠不完整。「只有一種語言,我們無法說話;只有一種宗教,我們無法傾聽...沒有了你,我們甚至無法記得...」當鏡頭平移,空蕩而雜草叢生的體育館映入眼簾,演講聲迴盪在偌大的體育場內,這些畫面都讓人想起二次大戰後波蘭強烈的反猶太主義。芭塔娜認為,唯有找回那群被驅離家園的人民,波蘭才能繼續邁向未來。這部赤裸裸而震撼人心的影片,不僅讓我們想起波蘭如何成為納粹受害者,更撩撥起波蘭人當時對於奧斯威辛集中營大屠殺的回憶。隨著影片的推展,不久畫面出現一群穿制服的學童在體育場內的草地排出人形文字,懇求猶太人回到這塊曾經背叛他們的土地。這群孩子是波蘭的未來,他們將實現歡迎猶太人返鄉的諾言,讓創傷的記憶不被抹滅,轉而成為活躍重生的起點,成為未來新希望的泉源。

隨著展覽繼續,在第二部影片中,那位知識份子死了,許多人前來他的喪禮致詞,包括一位波蘭歷史學家,談論著猶太人的消失對於波蘭是莫大的損失;而另一位流亡到以色列的波蘭猶太人則提及,她視以色列為她現在的家,但她選擇返回波蘭—回來緬懷,也回來遺忘。然而大部分的現場群眾卻不是來自波蘭或以色列,而是來自全球各地受歧視的人群,他們齊聚一堂,為了緬懷又一位因追求「同中存異、異中求同」而慘遭槍殺的豪傑。現場有各種膚色的人種,包括那些為自己努力爭取權益的非裔、亞裔,以及原住民等;其中也有同性戀、變性人,他們之中每天都有人為了活出自由而成為烈士;更有新移民,他們無論踏上多麼不友善的土地,仍努力建立起自己的家園;以及因戰亂流離失所的難民…。當鏡頭拉遠,我們看見了芭塔娜動員而來的上千人,齊聚於這位烈士的虛擬喪禮。這是我覺得最撼動人心、最有力量的一個畫面。這提醒了我們,記憶可以創造各種充滿希望的新世界,彼此和平相處,當中人人都能積極參與,承擔起改變的責任,對抗偏狹的心態,並建立一個永續發展的未來。這些多元新世界維持和諧的關鍵,在於個人參與以及承諾,從人的層面出發,建立新理想。就某種層面來說,這種團結世界的推手並非市場,而純粹是出於人性的行為,僅此而已。

這樣的觀點於最後一部影片中進一步獲得證明:這群人決定齊心打造一個社區。而芭塔娜對於這第三部片的靈感來源,來自於一系列有關個人參與的照片集,上面記錄著一群人去以色列親手建造「吉布茨」(譯註:以色列的一種集體社區)的過程。在此片中,這個誕生新世界的地方就位於前華沙猶太貧民區的一個當地公園,他們在此建立新社區,揚起無歧視的新旗幟。現今的當地波蘭居民看著這群人佔據他們的公園,象徵猶太人取回他們在華沙應有的空間,以過往記憶為基礎,重新建造一個新世界。然而這個新世界不僅是專屬猶太人的社區,這群新移民更代表一種改變的力量,他們企圖將二次大戰留下的殘骸轉化為一隻廣納百川、異中求同的鳳凰,從灰飛煙滅的歷史塵土中浴火重生。對我而言,這部影片也隱隱暗示著未來的矛盾,諷刺地反映出最近巴勒斯坦的事件,當初以色列人的到來導致巴勒斯坦人被迫遠離家園。在影片的結尾,芭塔娜讓我們看到因為歷史與回憶而摒除嫌隙、共同參與的眾人,其實深具創造新世界的潛力。她認為回歸故居是一種集體治療,然而這個新世界是否會再落入迫害他人的惡性循環呢?

或許對我而言,最震撼人心的是第一部影片,因為它呈現出歷史千變萬化的樣貌,以及在二次大戰中喪生的鬼魂如何在體育館的強風中,低聲呢喃著。那千變萬化的樣貌,或真或假、如夢似幻,是幻想、是幻象,也或許是芭塔娜希望心想事成而打造出來的魔術燈籠。但那些鬼魂不只是浪漫幻影,更充滿活躍再生的潛力。東亞共榮圈的軍政權導致無數日本人和亞洲人的傷亡與創傷,這種痛苦與失去,能否在共同歷史記憶的基礎上,經由一種共享的參與而將其抹去?因為在亞洲,我們的確共享了彼此的歷史記憶,儘管多麼血腥而痛苦,儘管當時是立基於瓜分市場、追逐財富和統治霸權。現在我們不需要再有另一個以經濟恐怖主導全球的超級大國。此時,全球正圍繞著中國重新調整秩序,也許現在正是建立共同理想的好時機。與其建立權力結構,也許我們可以共同打造一個共榮互存的多元世界,而不是屈服於另一個全球化,導致人們失去其獨特性。從共同記憶中躍然重生,讓人類重新從無至有,具有不可小覷的潛力。我們可以進入一種後國家的狀態,人人以亞洲都會人自居,彼此共享,並從20世紀的國家機制殘骸中,再次重生。因為就如同曼德拉曾說的:直到我們真正關心他人的自由時,我們也才能獲得自由。如果我們能掙脫國家界線的枷鎖,就能夠更多元化,不再侷限於單一性。

實際上,2004年歐盟擴增對亞洲深具啟發性。新歐盟的各國都認為,共同理想與共同價值的重要性勝過任何其他價值,若歐陸某國不認同包容與尊重差異的價值,便無法成為歐盟的一員,這也是塞爾維亞至今遲遲未被納入歐盟的原因。即使亞洲存在著多元的差異性,但是時候讓我們齊聚一堂,一同為未來商議出共同的理想和互動,以促進亞洲的發展。

 

有關王景生:

目前為《新加坡藝術節》藝術總監。他亦是著名的劇場導演,創立新加坡《TheatreWorks》劇團。他對亞洲多元美學發展多所貢獻,並推動此多元美學跨越全球,進入當代藝術的範疇。他也是《亞洲藝術網絡》創辦人,該協會專門透過微型獎助金協助亞洲各地進行合作計畫。身為傅爾布萊特學者的他於2010年獲得夙負盛名的福岡文化獎,以表揚他對亞洲當代表演之貢獻。

 

 

AND ASIA WILL BE STUNNED….
 

“With one language, we cannot speak. With one religion, we cannot listen … Without you, we cannot even remember...” 

This spring I finally saw Yael Bartana’s exhibition entitled “and Europe will be stunned” in a new york gallery.  I had heard about this Venice biennale project of the polish pavilion 2011 where MsBartana requested the return of 3.3 million jews to Poland as part of her artwork.  The exhibition consisted primarily of 3 films: the first begins with a polish intellectual making a speech in the deserted national stadium of Warsaw.  In this speech, the intellectual implores the Jews who were formerly from Poland, those who were not exterminated in concentration camps, to come back - for Poland is not whole without them.  “With one language, we cannot speak. With one religion, we cannot listen … Without you, we cannot even remember...”As the camera pans over a hauntingly empty stadium overgrown with grass and as we hear the speech echoing through the vast stadium, we are reminded of the strong anti-semiticism of Poland after World War II.  Bartana takes the position that Poland cannot continue to grow into the future without its people who had been driven out.  In this stark powerful film, we are reminded not only of Poland’s victimization by the Nazis but its own collusion in the holocaust memorialized by Auschwitz.  As the film continues, young children in their school uniforms begin to form huge words on the grass fieldof the stadium pleading the Jews to come back to the land that has betrayed them.  They are the next generation who will act on this promise of welcoming the Jews back.  It is a promise that the memory of trauma shall not be erased but instead this memory is the active site of regeneration from which new hope for the future can spring forth. 

As I journeyed through the exhibition, the next film develops on this idea – now the intellectual activist has been killed.  At his funeral, many speakers gather: a polish historian speaks of the loss when the Jews disappeared, another speaker- a polish jew who has exiled herself - talks of how Israel is now her home but shehas come back to Poland to remember and to forget.  However the audiences of these speeches are not from Poland or from Israel, they are the discriminated individuals of the world who have joined together to mourn the death of another visionary gunned down for pleading diversity and unity.  The audiences are of many different colours.  They are of African ethnicity, Asian ethnicity, first nations individuals who are fighting for their rights. They are gay men, gay women, transgender individuals who continue to be killed daily when they attempt to live in freedom.  They are migrants who struggle against all odds to make new homes in hostile lands.  They are displaced refugees who have had to flee wars.  This is the most powerful moment as the camera zooms out and you see the thousands of individuals Bartana has gathered to attend this fictional commemoration of a dead activist.  They become reminders that memory has the potential to create new worlds living together in peace and hope.  New worlds which are engaged, where individuals take on the personal agency and responsibility to become change agents against intolerance as well as building a sustainable future.  What holds these worlds of difference together are the personal engagements and commitments to build new ideals from the human being.  In a sense it is a world of unity built not by the market but by the pure act of being human, nothing more, nothing less. 

This is substantiated by the final film I encountered where these individuals work, build and resurrect a commune together.  For this film, Bartana was inspired by the archive images of the personal engagement of individuals who went to Israel to build kibbutzes together.  In the film, the new worldactively resurrects in the local park of the former Warsaw ghetto a new settlement with the new flag of a community without discrimination. The present day Polish inhabitants look on as their park is taken over by this commune.  A world is created from memory as the ‘Jews’ reclaim their space in Warsaw but this world is no longer just the jewish community.  The new settlers are a community of change agents who desire to rebuild from the ashes of the old, transforming the ruins of World War II into a phoenix which is tolerant towards difference, which is united in difference. For me, the film also hinted at the ambivalence of the future.  It is ironically charged with all the recent happenings in Palestine where Israel settlements have displaced Palestinians from their homes.  Bartana ends the film on the potential that world-creating generates from the collective engagement of many different individuals united by history and memory.  She talks about the primal return as collective therapy but will this new world repeat the cycle of oppression?

Perhaps the strongest film for me is the first as it is charged with the phantasmagoria of the past, the ghosts of all who have died in World War II, whispering in the strong winds of the stadium.   The phantasmagoria is real, imagined, dreamlike, a fantasy, an illusion, a magic lantern of wishful thinking by Bartana.  But these ghosts are not simply romantic phantoms, they are charged with the potential of active regeneration.  The military regime of the East Asian Coprosperity Sphere traumatized and killed many Japanese and Asians.  Can this pain and loss be exorcised by developing a shared engagement, founded on the memories of a shared heritage?  For we in Asia do share a heritage, no matter how bloody and painful it is, of this Sphere which was premised on market, wealth and domination.  This is not the time for yet another dominant superpower who leads by economic terror.   As the world realigns in relation to China, perhaps it is a time of shared ideals.  Instead of structures of power, perhaps we can share together to create worlds of sustenance rather than succumb to yet another globalization which levels all of us into a state of unitotality.  This active regeneration of potential from our shared heritage, the potential that is in the human being to build something from nothing is not to be underestimated.  We can move into a space of the post-nation, where we are cosmopolitan Asians who want to share and regenerate together from the debris of the nation, the construct of the 20th century.  For as Nelson Mandela said, we can never be free until we are concerned about the freedom of the other.  If we can break out of the shackles of our national concerns, we can become multiple, MANY rather than the monolithic ONE.

Practically I think the moment when the European Union expanded in 2004 is an instructive one for us here in Asia.  The new EU came to a collective agreement amongst its countries that shared ideals, shared values were of utmost importance.  If a country in continental Europe cannot believe in tolerance and respect for difference, than it cannot belong to the European Union.  This is why Serbia has yet to be admitted to the European Union.  Lets come together to the table and agree on shared ideals, shared engagement for the future which will galvanize us in Asia even though we are completely diverse.

 

Ong Keng Sen                                                                                                            30 Sep 2013

 

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